argue that although persuasion increases when fear rises from low to moderate levels, when rising from moderate to high levels, it actually decreases. "Culture, meaning and disability: injury prevention campaigns and the production of stigma". 18 Example: In a study of alcohol abuse on college campuses, students demonstrated heavy alcohol use in response to their peer groups that reinforced the behavior. 27 For nigeria local sex example, a fear appeal message stressing the likelihood of premature death for individuals who smoke may also reach the children of people who smoke, leading to avoidable anxiety in such groups. Threatening communication: a critical re-analysis and a revised meta-analytic test of fear appeal theory. With the health belief model, it is unclear whether self-efficacy is directly considered a cost of performing a suggested action because occasionally, a fear appeal is thought to be less effective if a difficulty of acting is considered a cost of acting. Ethical considerations edit A number of ethical concerns regarding the use of fear appeals have been raised, leading to widespread debate regarding the acceptability of their use.
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The influence of suggestion is expected to boost individual self-efficacy. 10 The process of change to the action stage involves a self-liberation process in which the fear appeal influences a changed behavior. "Personality Differences Associated with Responsiveness to Fear-Arousing Communications". 27 In addition to this, no studies have followed responses to fear appeals over the longer term, and it possible that repetition of fear appeals may lead to habituation and annoyance, therefore cause individuals to tune out to the messages of the health promotion campaign. Uncertainty orientation is an individual's characteristic response to uncertainty.
It also considers a wider range of consequences of the suggested behavior beyond the costs and reduced health risks. Ever." presented alongside a picture of a wheelchair, disabled participants in Wang's study felt that this held them up as an example of how not. This may be due to a lack in knowledge of the risk involving their current behavior, or an unwillingness to acknowledge that their behavior puts them at risk.